View the Project on GitHub CrystalTu/disinfo

Disinformation, Propaganda and Rebuilding Trust: An Online Reading List

This is a non-exhaustive list attempt to serve as a portal of disinformation in a global context. Fork, comments and suggestions welcome. If you wish to add anything, please send a pull request or add an issues in Github.

The list is originally offered in summer school of disinformation hosted by Digital Asia Hub at Jakarta, August 2018. I add several articles and reports.



Ladislav Bittman, “The KGB and Soviet Disinformation” https://archive.org/details/sovietdisinformation2


Ross Tapsell, “Disinformation and democracy in Indonesia” New Mandala, January 12, 2018 http://www.newmandala.org/disinformation-democracy-indonesia/

“Muslim Cyber Army: a ‘fake news’ operation designed to derail Indonesia’s leader”, The Guardian, March 13, 2018 https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/mar/13/muslim-cyber-army-a-fake-news-operation-designed-to-bring-down-indonesias-leader

Steve Stecklow, “Why Facebook is losing the war on hate speech in Myanmar”, Reuters, August 15, 2018. https://www.reuters.com/investigates/special-report/myanmar-facebook-hate/

Alina Polyakova and Daniel Fried, “How Democracies Can Defend Against Disinformation”, War on the Rocks, May 30, 2018 https://warontherocks.com/2018/05/how-democracies-can-defend-against-disinformation/

Seeing Lee, “How South Korea’s Fake News Hijacked a Democratic Crisis”, Gizmodo, October 3, 2017 https://gizmodo.com/how-south-korea-s-fake-news-hijacked-a-democratic-crisi-1793146533

Johanna Son, “Southeast Asia: Time for a Pushback in Media Spaces,” Heinrich Boll Stiftung, February 27, 2018 https://th.boell.org/en/2018/02/27/southeast-asia-time-pushback-media-spaces

Andy Yee, “WhatsApp, Fake News? The Internet and Risks of Misinformation in India,” The Diplomat, July 30, 2018 https://thediplomat.com/2018/07/whatsapp-fake-news-the-internet-and-risks-of-misinformation-in-india/

A tweet thread on disinformation by David Kaye, UN Special Rapporteur on freedom of opinion and expression (which links to other resources, including his opinion on the 2018 Malaysia Anti Fake-News Bill) https://twitter.com/davidakaye/status/982059513657245697

John Borthwick, “Media Hacking”, Render, March 8, 2015 https://render.betaworks.com/media-hacking-3b1e350d619c

David Hutt, “The Real Problem with Malaysia’s Fake News Law”, The Diplomat, April 5, 2018. https://thediplomat.com/2018/04/the-real-problem-with-malaysias-fake-news-law/

PTI, “Russia now targeting elections in Brazil, India: Oxford expert tells US lawmakers”, Indian Express, August 3, 2018 https://indianexpress.com/article/world/russia-now-targeting-elections-in-india-brazil-oxford-expert-tells-us-lawmakers/

Human Rights Watch, “Germany: Flawed Social Media Law, NetzDG is Wrong Response to Online Abuse”, February 14, 2018 https://www.hrw.org/news/2018/02/14/germany-flawed-social-media-law

Research paper & reports

Jennifer Kavanagh and Michael D. Rich, “Truth Decay: An Initial Exploration of the Diminishing Role of Facts and Analysis in American Public Life”, RAND Corporation, 2018 https://www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RR2314.html

Masato Kajimoto, “Research into information disorder in Asia”, Journalism and Media Studies Centre, University of Hong Kong, March 14, 2018 https://jmsc.hku.hk/2018/03/research-into-information-disorder-in-asia/

Masato Kajimoto, Carol Soon et al, “Information Disorder in Asia: Overview of Misinformation Ecosystem in India, Indonesia, Japan, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan”, 14 March, 2018 (last revised 17 June, 2018) https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3134581

Soon Wan Ting, Carol & Shawn Goh Ze Song, Written Representation to the Singapore Government’s Select Committee, Deliberate Online Falsehoods - Causes, Consequences and Countermeasures”, 27 February, 2018 https://www.parliament.gov.sg/docs/default-source/sconlinefalsehoods/written-representation-62.pdf

Parliament of Singapore, Select Committee on Deliberate Online Falsehoods - Causes, Consequences and Countermeasures - Repository of 170 submissions from a wide range of experts, from civil society, scholars in law, media, international studies and cybersecurity, media, technology companies, foreign experts and members of the public https://www.parliament.gov.sg/sconlinefalsehoods (See especially, under “Written Representations”, papers no. 26, 28, 36, 44, 48, 55, 59, 63, 74, 75, 104, 129 and 153)

Kumar Ramakrishna, “Disinformation and Fake News: Old Wine in New Bottles”, S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, March 27, 2018 https://www.rsis.edu.sg/rsis-publication/nssp/co18054-disinformation-and-fake-news-old-wine-in-new-bottles/

The Media Cloud team at the Berkman Klein Center for Internet and Society, “Partisanship, Propaganda, and Disinformation: Online Media and the 2016 U.S. Presidential Election”, August 16, 2017 http://cyber.harvard.edu/publications/2017/08/mediacloud

The Ethics and Governance of AI Initiative, “Understanding Media and Information Quality in an Age of Artificial Intelligence, Automation, Algorithms and Machine Learning”, July 12, 2018 http://cyber.harvard.edu/story/2018-07/understanding-media-and-information-quality-age-artificial-intelligence-automation

Kelly Born and Nell Edgington for the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, “Analysis of Philanthropic Opportunities To Mitigate the Disinformation/ Propaganda Problem”, Fall 2017 https://hewlett.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Hewlett-Disinformation-Propaganda-Report.pdf)

Alice Marwick and Rebecca Lewis, “Media Manipulation and Disinformation Online”, Data & Society Research Institute https://datasociety.net/pubs/oh/DataAndSociety_MediaManipulationAndDisinformationOnline.pdf

Lee Rainie and Janna Anderson, “The Fate of Online Trust in the Next Decade”, http://www.pewinternet.org/2017/08/10/the-fate-of-online-trust-in-the-next-decade/

Samuel C. Woolley and Douglas R. Guilbeault, “Computational Propaganda in the United States of America: Manufacturing Consensus Online”, Oxford Internet Institute, Working Paper No. 2017.5 http://comprop.oii.ox.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/sites/89/2017/06/Comprop-USA.pdf

Digital Literacy Resource Platform, Berkman Klein Center https://dlrp.berkman.harvard.edu/

European Commission, Final Report of the High Level Expert Group on Fake News and Online Disinformation, 12 March 2018 https://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/en/news/final-report-high-level-expert-group-fake-news-and-online-disinformation

Various UN Special Rapporteurs, Joint Declaration on Freedom of Expression and “Fake News”, Disinformation and Propaganda, March 3, 2017 https://www.osce.org/fom/302796?download=true

David Kaye, UN Special Rapporteur on the Promotion and Protection of the Right to Freedom of Opinion and Expression, Opinion on the German Network Enforcement Act (NetzDG), June 1, 2017 https://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Issues/Opinion/Legislation/OL-DEU-1-2017.pdf